|Research at the Foundation has been devoted, for over three decades,
to clarifying a number of fundamental questions in the life sciences and
● Until development of the path-distance model, formation of the genetic
code had remained an enigma. As anticipated, this step helped clarify
the origin of proteins within a pre-LUCA*, RNA-based form of life. With
uncovering of the path-invariant principle, the concept of ladder-
replicators arose, together with an insight into the origin of Watson-Crick
complementarity and the double-helix.
● Analogous to an invariant α-carboxyl in amino acid intermediates (tRNA
attachment site), reductive pentose-phosphate cycle intermediates
possess an invariant phosphate group. Attributing it to a pre-LUCA
polyphosphate scaffold led to evidence linking the origin of replication to
the spontaneous, pre-sugar autocatalytic formose cycle.
● By scaling biological evolution to its physicochemical driving forces,
the nineteenth century, population-scale theory of Darwin and Wallace,
based on the principle of Malthus, could be absorbed into a more
general theory. New insights resulted, including coexistence between
competing species and driving-force induced episodic-transitions.
● Statistical correlations between peaks in photon self-interference
intensity versus reconstructed-path density corroborated a resolution of
the 'which way' problem in quantum mechanics and supported the De
Broglie-Bohm interpretation of wave-particle duality. Conservation in
continuous and discontinuous displacements has been linked to
complexity invariance at standard, relativistic, and quantum scales.
● Contribute to validating string theory as a viable theory of
quantum gravity. Offer a proof for Goldbach's conjecture and apply
number theory to information encryption.
* Pre-LUCA, pre-Last Universal Common Ancestor
Earlier contributions (1962-1982):
● Norethynodrel, in birth-cotrol pill, shown to inhibit implantation (1962).
● Proposed tRNA/base-triplet binding assay to identify codon
assignments In genetic code (1963).
● Early proponent of synthetic biology (1965, 2004).
● Template sequence-complexity identified as a form of 'monomer
mixing' independent of DNA duplication thermodynamics (1965).
● Devised an immunochemical procedure to isolate specific
messenger-RNA in mouse plasmacytomas (1967).
● Initiated use of hydrogel implants for the slow-delivery of insulin,
anti-fertility agents, and other substances (1972-1974).
● Identified mammalian decapacitation factor and linked sperm fertilizing
capacity to efflux of plasma membrane cholesterol (1971-1985).
● Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection shown to
apply to molecular evolution in the test tube (1978).